• WINDSOR BLUE
  • RED PEPPER
  • AUBERGINE
  • COBALT
S
Saddle Stitch
Binding process for pamphlets or booklets which works by stapling through the middle fold of the sheets.
Scanner
Optical scanner, also electric device used in making color separation.
Scanning
Point-by-Point electronic scanning of color separations under computer control.
Score
The process and the resulting crease mechanically impressed in the paper to facilitate folding while guarding against cracking of paper and board. Scoring is essential when heavyweight papers are to be folded across the grain.
Screen
The ruling used to determine the dots per unit area in developing tonal values in the printed piece. Screens from which letterpress halftones of photographs are made range from 60 lines-per-inch for printing on newsprint to 150 lines for printing on coated paper. Offset halftones for printing on most surfaces range from 133 lines to 200 lines.
Screen Printing
Printing process uses a screen of fine-mesh silk stretched across a frame. A squeegee is drawn across the screen forcing ink through the open image areas.
Sewn Book
A popular style of bookbinding in which the signatures are gathered in sequence and then sewn individually in 8s, 16s, or 32s. The sewing threads are visible at the center of each signature.
Sheet
Term which may be applied to a single sheet, a grade of paper, or a description of paper, i.e. coated, uncoated, offset, etc.
Sheet Fed
Any printing press requiring paper in a sheet form as opposed to printing in rolls.
Short Grain
Occurs when the predominant fiber orientation is parallel to the shortest sheet dimension.
Show Through
In printing, the undesirable condition in which the printing on the reverse side of a sheet can be seen through the sheet under normal lighting conditions.
Side Stitch
A method of binding in which the folded signatures or cut sheets are stitched with wire along and through the side, close to the gutter margin. Pages cannot be fully opened to a flat position; also called side wire.
Signature
Section of book obtained by folding a single sheet of printed paper in 8, 12, 16 or 32 pages.
Silkscreening
Another name for screen process printing.
Size or Sizing
Additive substances applied to the paper either internally through the beater or as a coating that improves printing qualities and resistance to liquids. Commonly used sizes are starch and latex.
Skid
A reusable platform support made of wood, on which sheets of paper are delivered, and on which printed sheets or folded sections are stacked. Also used to ship materials, usually in cartons that have been strapped to the skid. Or a quantity of paper, usually about 3000 lbs., skid-packed.
Slip Sheeting
Placing pieces of paper between folded sections prior to trimming four sides, to separate completed books.
Slurry
Watery suspension of pigments, etc., which is used in coating or papermaking.
Smashed Blanket
An area of a blanket that is no longer firm and resilient, and that gives a light impression in the center of a well-printed area. Usually caused by physical damage of the blanket at impression.
Smooth Finish
A finish on paper that has been made smooth by passing through various rollers.
Smythe Sewn
A method of fastening side-by-side signatures so that each is linked with thread to its neighbor, as well as saddle sewn through its own centerfold. Smythe-sewn books open flat. The stitching is on the back of the fold.
Spec'd (specified)
Spec'd instructions gives details of items such as paper, bindery techniques, type, etc., which have been determined for a given job.
Specifier
The designer or printing production worker who determines the types of paper to be used under various circumstances.
Spectrophotometer
Sophisticated instrument that measures color across a visible spectrum and produces data describing the color of a given sample in terms of the three parameters in color space.
Spine
Backbone of a book.
Spiral Binding
Wires in a spiral form inserted through specially punched holes along the binding edge.
Split Fountain
A technique for simultaneously printing two colors from the same ink fountain.
Spot Varnish
Press varnish applied to a portion of the sheet, as opposed to an overall application of the varnish.
Stiffness
Property of paper to resist bending.
Stitched Book
A popular method of sewing the signatures of a book together by stitching all the sheets at one time, either through the center of the inserted sheets or side-stitched from front to back.
Stochastic
A digital screening process that converts images into very small dots (14-40 microns) of equal size and variable spacing. Also called Frequency Modulated (FM) screening.
Stock Sizes
Standard sizes of paper or board.
Stock Weights
Weights of papers stocked by mills and merchants.
Stocking Items
Papers manufactured in popular sizes, weights, colors, etc. on a regular basis to maintain adequately stocked inventories in mill warehouses.
Stocking Merchant
Paper distributor that stocks in his warehouse enough paper to immediately fill anticipated orders in the market. This eliminates the delay of ordering from the paper mill, taking delivery, and delivering to the customer.
Stretch
Describes the "give" of a sheet of paper when it is subjected to tensile pressure.
Strike Through
Penetration of printing ink through a sheet of paper.
Super Calendering
Alternating rolls of highly polished steel and compressed cotton in a stack. During the process the paper is subjected to the heated steel rolls and "ironed".
Swatchbook
A sample book. A grouping of papers, usually in bound form, that displays the weights, colors, finishes and other particulars of a collection of papers to aid in the selection of grades.
T
TIFF Tagged Image File Format
A file format for graphics suited for representing scanned images and other large bitmaps. TIFF is a neutral format designed for compatibility with all applications. TIFF was created specifically for storing grayscale images, and it is the standard format for scanned images such as photographs-now called TIFF/IT.
TCF - Totally Chlorine Free
Includes both virgin and post-consumer fibers that are bleached without any chlorine containing compounds.
Text Paper
A general term applied to various grades of printing paper designed for deluxe printed booklets, programs, announcements and advertising. May be watermarked.
Thermography
Letterpress printing that uses a special ink that while still wet is dusted with a resin powder. Then the sheets are baked which fuses the powder with the ink and gives the printing a raised effect.
Thickness
Measurement in thousandths of an inch.
Tolerance
Permissible degree of variation from a pre-set standard.
Tooth
Characteristic of paper. A slightly rough paper which permits acceptance of ink readily.
Translucent Papers
Papers that will allow information to be seen through them but not totally clear like acetate; Photographic positive mounted in a clear or transparent image.
Transparent Ink
Printing ink that does not conceal the color beneath. Process inks are transparent so that they will blend to form other colors.
Trapping
The ability to print a wet ink film over previously printed ink. Dry trapping is printing wet ink on dry paper or over dry ink. Wet trapping is printing wet ink over previously printed wet ink.
Trim
Excess of the paper allowed a printed sheet for gripper and bleed.
Trim Marks
In printing, marks placed on the copy to indicate the edge of the page where to cut or trim.
Trim Size
The final size of a printed piece after trimming.
Tumble
Head to foot printing.
Two Sidedness
In paper, the property denoting difference in appearance and printability between its top (felt) and bottom (wire) sides.
Two Up
Printing the same page or group of pages from two sets of plates, thereby producing two impressions of a piece at one time.
Type Face
A design of letters of the alphabet intended to be used in combination with each other.
U
Uncoated
Paper that has not been coated. Nevertheless a given coated sheet can be made in a variety of finishes.
Under Run
Term refers to an order produced or delivered that is less than the quantity specified by the customer. Allowances are permitted in trade practices for under-runs.
Up
A term used to describe how many similar sheets can be produced from a larger sheet: two up, four up, etc.
UV
Ultra Violet radiation method of drying process color inks on high-speed multicolor offset presses.
UV Coating
A slick, glossy coating applied to the printed paper surface and dried on press with ultraviolet (UV) light.
UV Inks
In printing, solventless inks that are cured by UV radiation. They are used extensively in screen-printing, narrow web letterpress and flexographic printing.
V
Varnish
Thin, protective coating applied to a printed sheet of paper for protection or improved appearance.
Vellum Finish
A full, toothy, relatively rough finish paper surface of uncoated text and cover papers. Vellum is also used to designate translucent papers
Velox
A black and white print for proofing or for display.
Vignette
Halftone whose background gradually fades away to blend with the surface of the paper.
Virgin Pulp
Paper made from the fibers in their first use, usually from wood pulp.
W
Waterless Offset Printing
Refers to lithographic printing, where no fountain solution
is used.
Watermark
The translucent design or name easily visible when a sheet is held to the light.
Water Resistant
Quality of a sheet of paper to resist penetration by water from one surface to the other.
Web Offset
A lithographic printing press in which the paper is fed from a roll as a web (continuous ribbon), as opposed to sheets.
Web Press
The name of a type of press that prints from rolls of paper.
Wet End
The beginning of the paper machine, comprising the head box, wire, and wet presses; the first sections of the paper machine where the paper web is formed from water and the solid furnish components.
Wet Strength Paper
Paper where the fiber constitutes and/or the sheets are chemically treated to enhance their resistance to tearing, rupturing or disintegration after becoming saturated with liquids.
Whiteness
Whiteness of pulp and paper is generally indicated by its brightness.
Wire
The continuous open mesh material (earlier, a bronze or copper woven wire screen) used on the paper machine to initiate the water removal process.
Wire Side
The side of a sheet next to the wire in manufacturing. It is the side opposite from the felt or top side; usually not as smooth as the felt or top side. The bottom side of the web of paper, as it is produced on the paper machine; historically has been the rougher of the two sides.
Work And Roll
See work and tumble.
Work And Tumble
Printing one side of a sheet and turning it over from the gripper to the tail to print the second side using the same side guide and plate for the second side.
Work And Turn
Printing one side of a sheet and turning it over from left to right using the same side guides and plate for the second side.
Wove Finish
Uncoated paper that has an even finish with a slight toothiness.
Writing Paper
A general term applied to papers used for writing purposes.
Xx Yy Zz
Zig Zag Fold
Folding used with continuous forms with alternating position (head and foot).